Rough endoplasmic reticulum (Rough ER) and Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (Smooth ER) are two distinct organelles found in eukaryotic cells. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a vast membrane network consisting of flattened sacs, tubes, and canals that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm. It is responsible for many important cellular processes, including protein synthesis and cellular respiration. ER is divided into two distinct types, rough ER and smooth ER, which differ in structure, function, and location.
The rough ER is so named because of its ribosome-studded surface. Ribosomes are organelles that are responsible for synthesizing proteins. The ribosomes attached to the rough ER are responsible for synthesizing the proteins that are sent to the Golgi apparatus for packaging and distribution. Rough ER is found throughout the cytoplasm and is involved in the synthesis of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
Smooth ER is so named because it lacks ribosomes on its surface. Smooth ER is involved in many metabolic processes, including lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as detoxification and hormone synthesis. It is found in the cytoplasm and in the nuclear envelope. Smooth ER is also involved in calcium storage and the regulation of muscle contraction.
In summary, rough ER and smooth ER are two distinct types of ER found in eukaryotic cells. Rough ER is ribosome-studded and involved in protein synthesis, while smooth ER is free of ribosomes and involved in metabolic processes. Both types of ER play an important role in the function of the cell.
What is the Difference Between Rough Er and Smooth Er?
The Composition of Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum, or ER, is a network of membranes that extends throughout the cytoplasm. It is subdivided into two categories: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). RER is characterized by its rough surface due to ribosomes that are attached to its outer membrane. SER, on the other hand, lacks ribosomes and therefore has a smooth surface.
The Functions of Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
RER is mainly responsible for the synthesis of proteins and proteins-associated lipids. It produces proteins that will be used in the cell, or proteins that will be exported to other cells. The ribosomes attached to the RER are responsible for the protein synthesis, and the roughness of the RER is due to presence of ribosomes.
SER is mainly involved in the synthesis of lipids, such as membrane-bound lipids, or fatty molecules like cholesterol. SER also participates in the detoxification of drugs and chemicals, and it is involved in calcium storage.
The Structural Differences Between Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
RER is composed of flattened sacs called cisternae which are connected to one another. The ribosomes attached to the outer surface of RER give it a rough appearance. SER is composed of tubular structures that are not connected to ribosomes, which gives it a smooth appearance. In addition, the cisternae of SER are smaller than those of RER, and the surface of SER is more convoluted than that of RER.